top of page Group

Public·6 members

Buy Dnp Research Chemical

Flowchart of the research process depicting the three distinct phases of systematic Internet search (September - December, 2013), supplement sampling and screening (January - July, 2014) and survey study (December 2014 - August 2015). Internet sites were re-checked in March 2015 with the list revised in August 2015

buy dnp research chemical

Another limitation of this study is the small sample size from gym donations for testing, which prevents us drawing meaningful conclusions for the general population of recreational or fitness exercisers. The relatively small sample of DNP users renders testing for statistically significant differences difficult and results arising from statistical analyses should be interpreted cautiously. They are presented to illustrate possible trends to inform future research directions rather than drawing definite conclusions. For the latter, the research should be repeated in a larger sample. However, it must be noted that although by the general standards of survey methodology, the sample size may appear small; owing to the high level of suspicion that surrounds any enquiry about DNP by a newcomer who is not known in the online discussion board community, recruiting 35 users is a considerable achievement which took approximately nine months. With the small sample size limitation for quantitative analysis acknowledged, the open-ended questions however yielded rich qualitative information from a significant cohort of DNP users on how DNP users feel about DNP, rationalise their behavioural choice and manage the risks that they are fully aware of.

Commercial DNP is primarily used for scientific research and in manufacturing. It has been used at times to make dyes, other organic chemicals, and wood preservatives. It has also been used to make photographic developer, explosives, and pesticides.

In living cells, DNP acts as a proton ionophore, an agent that can shuttle protons (hydrogen ions) across biological membranes. It defeats the proton gradient across mitochondria and chloroplast membranes, collapsing the proton motive force that the cell uses to produce most of its ATP chemical energy. Instead of producing ATP, the energy of the proton gradient is lost as heat. Cells counteract the lowered yields of ATP by oxidizing more stored reserves such as carbohydrates and fat.

DNP is considered an important environmental contaminant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It has been found in 61 of 1400 priority sites that need clean-up of industrial waste. It can enter the air from automobile exhaust, burning of certain industrial substances, and from reaction of nitrogen in air with other atmospheric chemicals. The major site of degradation is the soil, where microorganisms metabolize it.

While DNP itself is considered by many to be too risky for human use, its mechanism of action remains under investigation as a potential approach for treating obesity.[5] Currently, research is being conducted on uncoupling proteins naturally found in humans.

2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2. It is a yellow, crystalline solid that has a sweet, musty odor. It sublimates, is volatile with steam, and is soluble in most organic solvents as well as aqueous alkaline solutions.[1] When in a dry form, it is a high explosive and has an instantaneous explosion hazard.[2] It is a precursor to other chemicals and is biochemically active, uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from the electron transport chain in cells with mitochondria, by allowing hydrogen cations to pass from the intermembrane space into the mitochondrial matrix. Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly regulated step in aerobic respiration that is inhibited, among other factors, by normal cellular levels of ATP. Uncoupling it results in chemical energy from diet and energy stores such as triglycerides being wasted as heat with minimal regulation, leading to dangerously high body temperatures that may develop into heatstroke. Its use as a dieting aid has been identified with severe side-effects, including a number of deaths.[3]

It is a chemical intermediate in the production of sulfur dyes,[10] wood preservatives[4] and picric acid.[11] DNP has also been used to make photographic developers and explosives (see shellite).[12] DNP is classified as an explosive in the United Kingdom[13] and the United States.[14]

Although DNP is widely considered too dangerous for clinical use, its mechanism of action remains under investigation as a potential approach for treating obesity.[15] As of 2015, research is being conducted on uncoupling proteins naturally found in humans.[16]

In living cells, DNP acts as a proton ionophore, an agent that can shuttle protons (hydrogen cations) across biological membranes. It dissipates the proton gradient across the mitochondria membranes, collapsing the proton motive force that the cell uses to produce most of its ATP chemical energy. Instead of producing ATP, the energy of the proton gradient is lost as heat.[3]

The United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency identifies DNP as "an industrial chemical known to have serious short-term and long-term effects, which can be extremely dangerous to human health" and advises "consumers not to take any product containing DNP at any level. This chemical is not suitable for human consumption."[35] Since February 2017 DNP has been included in Australia SUSMP Schedule 10, "Substances of such a danger to health as to warrant prohibition of sale, supply and use"[36][37] From December 2018 DNP has been classified as an "illegal poisonous substance" in Russia.[38][39] From 1st October 2023 DNP will be included in the United Kingdom Control of Explosives Precursors and Poisons Regulations 2023 as a regulated poison.[40]

Chapman & Hall Chemical Dictionaries allow you to search an extensive database of chemical compounds by name, physical property, structure and more. This documentation will guide you through getting the most from this Chemical Dictionary, including:

DNP, or 2,4-Dinitrophenol, is an industrial chemical sold as tablets or capsules that has become popular amongst some people wanting to lose fat quickly, including bodybuilders and people with eating disorders. Despite not being suitable for human consumption, 26 people in the UK have died from taking it since 2007.

Label IT Nucleic Acid Labeling Kits. The Label IT chemical labeling reagents are composed of three regions: the label (fluorophore or hapten) (green), the linker (yellow) which facilitates electrostatic interactions with nucleic acids and the reactive alkylating group (blue) that covalently attaches the Label IT reagent to any reactive heteroatom within the nucleic acids. Attachment of the Label IT Reagents to nucleic acids does not alter the structure of the nucleic acid or affect downstream hybridization performance, and as such, nucleic acids labeled using the Label IT Reagents can be employed in multiple applications as defined by the researcher.

Atlantic Research Chemicals is a supplier of speciality building blocks and intermediates to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and agrochemical industry. Our aim is to enhance the drug development process by providing a service that delivers products at a cost effective price and to required timescales.

Any individual(s) with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to carry out the proposed research as the Program Director(s)/Principal Investigator(s) (PD(s)/PI(s)) is invited to work with his/her organization to develop an application for support. Individuals from underrepresented racial and ethnic groups as well as individuals with disabilities are always encouraged to apply for NIH support.

All applicants planning research (funded or conducted in whole or in part by NIH) that results in the generation of scientific data are required to comply with the instructions for the Data Management and Sharing Plan. All applications, regardless of the amount of direct costs requested for any one year, must address a Data Management and Sharing Plan.

Obesity is a health problem affecting more than 40% of US adults and 13% of the global population. Anti-obesity treatments including diet, exercise, surgery and pharmacotherapies have so far failed to reverse obesity incidence. Herein, we target obesity with a pharmacotherapeutic approach that decreases caloric efficiency by mitochondrial uncoupling. We show that a recently identified mitochondrial uncoupler BAM15 is orally bioavailable, increases nutrient oxidation, and decreases body fat mass without altering food intake, lean body mass, body temperature, or biochemical and haematological markers of toxicity. BAM15 decreases hepatic fat, decreases inflammatory lipids, and has strong antioxidant effects. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies show that BAM15 improves insulin sensitivity in multiple tissue types. Collectively, these data demonstrate that pharmacologic mitochondrial uncoupling with BAM15 has powerful anti-obesity and insulin sensitizing effects without compromising lean mass or affecting food intake.

In the WD reversal study, mice fed WD for 4 weeks had a threefold increase in fat mass. Groups of mice were stratified and randomized to WD with or without 0.1% w/w BAM15. Within 3 weeks of treatment, BAM15 completely reversed diet-induced glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp experiments performed after 6 weeks of treatment showed that BAM15 improved insulin sensitivity to levels similar to chow mice evidenced by normalization of glucose infusion rate and improvements in muscle glucose clearance and suppression of adipose NEFA production. WD-fed mice have impaired insulin-mediated suppression of hepatic glucose output compared to chow-fed mice; however, mice fed WD containing BAM15 have an intermediate phenotype between chow and WD whereby they are statistically no different from either chow or WD groups. When considering this collectively with the biochemical data, BAM15 appears to have a stronger phenotype for fat oxidation over glucose metabolism that may underlie the anti-obesity effects. Cardiac muscle glucose uptake was not statistically different for any group. 041b061a72


Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...
bottom of page