Anatomical Atlas Of Chinese Acupuncture Points.... !!TOP!!
The research shines a light on the hitherto unrecognised contributions of Chinese anatomists, and repositions them at the centre of the field. This new information challenges the perceived esoteric nature of acupuncture, and roots it instead in anatomical science.
Anatomical Atlas of Chinese Acupuncture Points....
For thousands of years, scientists have studied human anatomy by dissecting bodies. Our knowledge of their findings is limited, however, both by the subsequent loss of many of the oldest texts, and by a tendency toward a Eurocentric perspective in medicine. As a discipline, anatomy tends to be much more familiar with ancient Greek texts than with those from India, China, or Persia. Here, we show that the Mawangdui medical texts, entombed in the Mawangdui burial site in Changsha, China 168 BCE, are the oldest surviving anatomical atlas in the world. These medical texts both predate and inform the later acupuncture texts which have been the foundation for acupuncture practice in the subsequent two millennia. The skills necessary to interpret them are diverse, requiring the researcher firstly to read the original Chinese, and secondly to perform the anatomical investigations that allow a re-viewing of the structures that the texts refer to. Acupuncture meridians are considered to be esoteric in nature, but these texts are clearly descriptions of the physical body. As such, they represent a previously hidden chapter in the history of anatomy, and a new perspective on acupuncture.
Methods: A total of 5 SD rats were used in the present study. In reference to the current acupoint locations and anatomical structure of rats as well as those of the human body, an acupoint atlas having a stereoscopic mode was re-mapped by using Adobe photoshop/illustrator CS6 imaging processing and drawing system.
Conclusion: A new acupoint atlas with 3 dimension image mode is accomplished in the rat, being more convenient and applicable for researchers to edit the relevant graph materials in paper writing, and playing a possibly useful guidance for the standardization of acupoint selection in experimental acupuncture researches.
Reported in the journal The Anatomical Record, the ancient Chinese text has recently been studied by anatomy experts at Bangor University in the UK and Howard University in the US, leading them to argue that this relic could be considered the oldest surviving anatomical atlas in the world.
This lavishly illustrated anatomic atlas of 414 pages by the Italian doctors Quirico and Pedrali provides the reader with concrete answers and reassurance on a wide range of questions pertaining to anatomy in acupuncture practice. The first section offers a concise review of all major acupuncture points, presenting their clinical applications in table format. This is followed by a second section of more than 200 full-color illustrations. Cross-sections depict concrete anatomic structures in the vicinity of each acupuncture point, illustrating skin, muscles, nerves, blood vessels, and bones. Lastly, additional information on auricular and scalp acupuncture points, Chinese therapeutic techniques other than acupuncture, and reflexology plates round out the information provided in the two main sections of the book.
Deepen your understanding of acupuncture and increase the efficacy of your practice by perfecting your understanding of the location, needling methods, attaining de qi, anatomic relations, and key clinical indications for each acupuncture point, all in one conveniently referenced location! For detailed clinical information and comparisons between Western and TCM indications of specific acupuncture points, this atlas can be paired with Volume 2, which provides in-depth descriptions of over 400 acupuncture points.
The texts were discovered in the 1970s within tombs at the site of Mawangdui in south-central China. The tombs belonged to Marquis Dai, his wife Lady Dai and their son. The texts are challenging to understand, and they use the term "meridian" to refer to parts of the human body. In a paper recently published Sept. 1 in the journal The Anatomical Record, a research team led by Vivien Shaw, an anatomy lecturer at Bangor University in Wales in the United Kingdom, argues that these texts "are the oldest surviving anatomical atlas in the world."
The team concludes that the texts "represent the earliest surviving anatomical atlas, designed to provide a concise description of the human body for students and practitioners of medicine in ancient China."
TJ Hinrichs, a history professor at Cornell University who has conducted research into ancient Chinese medicine but is not affiliated with this research, also did not think that "anatomical atlas" was an appropriate term to describe these texts. Live Science has reached out to other experts not affiliated with the research, however most were not able to reply at time of publication.
Discovered near Changsha, in South Central China, the manuscripts were placed in a tomb around 2,200 years ago in 168BCE. This new interpretation of the texts would make them the oldest surviving anatomical atlas in the world.
Co-author Izzy Winder of the School of Natural Sciences said: "What we have done is to reinterpret the texts, which describe eleven 'pathways' through the body. Some of these clearly map onto later acupuncture 'meridians.' We have been able to show significant parallels between the descriptions in the text and anatomical structures, and thus rediscover the ancient interest in the scientific study of the human form. Previous scholars have not seen the works as describing anatomy, because contemporary Confucian cultural practices venerated ancestors and so shunned dissection. However, we think that dissection was involved and that the authors would have had access to the bodies of criminals, as is recounted in later texts."
Vivien Shaw added: "Our findings re-write a key part of Chinese history. The contemporary Han era was a time of great learning and innovation across arts and sciences, so this type of classical anatomical science fits with the prevailing culture of the time. We believe that our interpretation of the text challenges the widespread belief that there is no scientific foundation for the 'anatomy of acupuncture,' by showing that the earliest physicians writing about meridians were in fact describing the physical body."
This practical, full-color photographic atlas is an indispensable aid to rapid, accurate location of acupuncture points. It's the first book to combine illustrated acupuncture points with full-color photos indicating the body anatomy in the vicinity of commonly used and potentially dangerous points. The book's first section provides photos of human models with the 14 acupuncture channels and 409 acupuncture points clearly indicated; the photos first depict the whole body, then provide greater detail on specific body regions. The second section contains color photos of large cross-sections of the trunk, indicating relevant acupuncture points by channel. The third section presents color photos, each accompanied by one or more color drawings, illustrating cross-sections of body parts in the vicinity of individual commonly used or higher-risk acupuncture points; these photos and drawings illustrate the depth of needle insertion and label the anatomical structures traversed by the needle. They are accompanied by brief notes on location, depth of insertion and clinical indications.
Features photos and diagrams that aid the reader in locating points and gaining needling confidence as they learn to visualize the "real life" body structures involved in the needle passage.
Presents full-color photos of acupuncture channels and points on human models, aa well as full-color photos and drawings of anatomical cross-sections at commonly used and higher-risk points.
Facilitates rapid location of acupuncture points.
AuthorYan ZhenguoPublisherDonica PublishingNumber of Pages188Book FormatHardbackReviews Write Your Own Review You're reviewing:Anatomical Atlas of Acupuncture PointsYour RatingPrice1 star2 stars3 stars 4 stars5 starsValue1 star2 stars3 stars4 stars5 starsQuality1 star 2 stars3 stars4 stars5 starsNicknameSummaryReviewSubmit Review* Orders shipped outside of Europe are eligible for VAT relief and will not be charged VAT.
Abstract:Within the last 10 years, the percentage of low back pain (LBP) prevalence increased by 18%. The management and high cost of LBP put a tremendous burden on the healthcare system. Many risk factors have been identified, such as lifestyle, trauma, degeneration, postural impairment, and occupational related factors; however, as high as 95% of the cases of LBP are non-specific. Currently, LBP is treated pharmacologically. Approximately 25 to 30% of the patients develop serious side effects, such as drowsiness and drug addiction. Spinal surgery often does not result in a massive improvement of pain relief. Therefore, complementary approaches are being integrated into the rehabilitation programs. These include chiropractic therapy, physiotherapy, massage, exercise, herbal medicine and acupuncture. Acupuncture for LBP is one of the most commonly used non-pharmacological pain-relieving techniques. This is due to its low adverse effects and cost-effectiveness. Currently, many randomized controlled trials and clinical research studies have produced promising results. In this article, the causes and incidence of LBP on global health care are reviewed. The importance of treatment by acupuncture is considered. The efforts to reveal the link between acupuncture points and anatomical features and the neurological mechanisms that lead to acupuncture-induced analgesic effect are reviewed.Keywords: low back pain (LBP); acupuncture; mechanism of acupuncture; anti-nociceptive; purinergic receptors; adenosine triphosphate (ATP); adenosine 041b061a72